Academic Writing: Essay Format – English for Academic Purposes with Josh #16

all right everybody welcome hello hello it’s good to see everybody here it is a beautiful sunny day in Spokane Washington USA I’m happy to be here with you and be your teacher for the day we’re gonna continue on with some English for academic purposes it’s one of my favorite classes to teach because it’s preparing you for university or to be successful in your business or job communication skills are so important and they can really provide great opportunities in your lives I feel very grateful for having good teachers myself when I was in university and even high school they encouraged me to learn public speaking skills and ways to articulate language such that the people I am talking to get my real meaning the strongest meaning that I’m trying to convey so we’re going to do that in this class and we have been doing that so hello everybody it looks like someone’s here ah Bashir hello welcome is this your first time is it Muhammad or is it a Bashir so let me know what you’d like me to call you Selma of course hello Rosa hello Romo hi good to have you here you’re super tired today I’m sorry about that hopefully you can get some coffee and stay awake for our lesson nappy nappy happy I doubt that’s your real name but if that’s what you wanted me to call you great welcome is this your first class if so we’re happy to have you if you’ve taken a class before let me know first time for abdel-rahman welcome hello what country are you from we have some amazing students from all these different countries we have students from Pakistan from India from Algeria students from Colombia and Mexico all right yes so welcome and Lassa Lassa Lassa is that right is this your first class if so welcome we’re happy to have you Oh Saudi Arabia Abdul Rahman welcome we have students here at our College from Saudi Arabia some from Jeddah and some from smaller towns that are a few hours from Jeddah but it’s always good to to have all these cultures come together with the common goal of learning English we love that and special thanks to our premium subscribers I see roses here Rosa always a pleasure happy to have you in class and Selma thank you for being here as always you guys are amazing students and we love to treat you to our special premium subscriber features which I’ll talk about just a little bit before we get started with our lesson today so our smart live classes if you’re coming here for the first time or if you’re returning and a premium subscriber I’ll go over sort of what our premium subscribers are getting and if you want to become one you can your first month is free so here’s our lesson or lesson outline for our smart live classes so the smart lives in the English class that’s streamed on YouTube and you have a Canadian or American teacher I’m an American teacher go America it’s it’s a great campus that we have here and I’m in the studio I’m in a production studio right here so we got to do these classes for you but you can come and study here in Spokane if you want it’s a beautiful city we have great international community and it’s a great place to learn English because we have 91% native speakers and our accents here in the Pacific Northwest this region it’s one of the best regions to study in because our accents are very common across America if you study somewhere like Texas or Mississippi Americans speak very differently there and their accents sometimes are so strange to even Americans that we have a hard time understanding them they’re also beautiful accents and they’re very fun to listen to but it can be difficult if we if we try to study English in some of these places so abdul-rahman asks if I’m with Trump no no he’s it’s just a bunch of it’s a bunch of Hollywood media hype he doesn’t really have that much power that power the president is not that strong and a lot of people are asking questions about it and I’m sure you’re interested but to Americans it’s not really a big deal nothing truly changes in our country it’s it’s a lot of people that make change and the people in America are the ones that really make any sort of changes so really it doesn’t make a big difference I don’t like the guy and I love that I have the freedom in America to say that you know I can go out in the streets and say I don’t like our president and nothing bad happens that’s not true in every country so it’s nice to live in America and have these freedoms to be able to say and do whatever we want basically as long as it doesn’t harm anybody so yeah that’s it’s hopefully that answers some of your questions if you were wondering about what it’s like in America right now it’s the same as it was when Obama was president nothing has changed and we’re still teaching these amazing classes and still enjoying all the freedoms that America offers so it’s really nice so again back to our smart live class this class is invite only for between five and thirty students so Rosa and Selma I’ll keep talking about them because they’re two of our wonderful premium subscribers that are in class today and they get from us 12-week course with two hours per week and they get a little more than that too because I meet with them on hangouts I’m gonna do a short hang out today so Rosa’s almost stick around I’ll invite you guys to the hangout after class and you get one-on-one time with me to ask me any individual questions you want and that’s that’s really nice I like doing that because I get a really connect with students rose and I are working on an essay and some homework you get access to our smart curricula which I will show you here we’re gonna go over this lesson in just a little bit but you get access to a ton of information there’s lots of different levels and lots of different classes that you get to explore I’ve taught almost all of these classes in my history teaching here at the Spokane College of English language but there’s tons of great information and resources that you get access to you also get homework that is marked by me if you’re a premium subscriber and you get to email me anytime you want and get lesson feedback in the form of videos and audio clips that are extra besides the free YouTube clips and then you’ll get an English certification for graduates of the program so Rosa you’re on track Selma you’re on track to do that good work you guys are doing amazing you get a lot more practice and it’s nice to have practice from a native speaker and I can answer specific questions you have it’s kind of the best way to learn English so if you can’t travel to America or Canada this is a great alternative to that hi everybody soo soo Miah hi how are you it’s good to see you back thanks for coming Luciana of course great to see you again as well so we have beginner English intermediate English advanced English and English for academics academic purposes that’s what class you’re in right now I of course am your teacher Joshua and this class is for two hours a week and it runs on Tuesdays and Thursdays at 8 o clock p.m. GMT or 2:30 p.m. actually I’m not sure that that time is correct we don’t use the 24-hour time system here in America so I’m not sure exactly what time that is but 2:30 is the time that we run our class p.m. Pacific Standard Time so right now is when we’re doing it and yeah it’s a great great opportunity I think I really am excited about it and it want more information I’m gonna copy these links in the chat so you can check it out yourself so if you’re interested in becoming a subscriber then go to that link and check it out you’re on our YouTube page subscribe and check out our other teachers we have Nicole and Neil here in America at our College they’re amazing teachers and up in Canada our sister college we have mark and Sean who are also amazing teachers they’re great at what they do you should check out all of their classes so that’s our youtube link smart English YouTube link and ok 20 to 30 GMT Thank You rose I appreciate that and good morning Nilofer good to see you back as well I also would like you guys to join our Facebook group if you can there’s lots of great discussions and quizzes that are on there that are free as well and like I said you can get a month free just for signing up and there’s no obligation you don’t have to you don’t have to continue but we hope you do because we love having our premium subscribers if you do want to come study with me in person I’ll give you a high five you can have lunch with us and all the teachers we have great lunches every day with all our students we do activities here in Spokane we’d have conversation club and we’ll go to the fair we have a running club a volunteer club chess club I’m a big nerd I love chess that’s a great game we do lots of really fun activities with our students we go to theme parks or go play in the the park that’s right next to our college campus it’s a beautiful city and you can join our Spokane College Facebook page too it’s not just for our students it’s for anyone who wants to learn English and and talk to our students and ask them questions Selma I wish you could study here too I hope you can someday okay and okay so Rosa was watching Shawn’s class before this one yeah that’s great Shawn is an amazing teacher he’s the director of the Canadian College of English language much like I am the director of the Spokane College of English language so I’m a teacher I’m also the director here so if you have questions about applying or wanting to come study here you can send me an email my email is Joshua dot live at smart english.com that’s SMRT English comm so please check us out like I said if you want to to come study here with us just just go to this link you can apply it looks like Abdul Rahman you want to graduate and come study at our College awesome please do that would be awesome when do you graduate is it soon are you a senior Junior you’re in high school or college maybe I don’t know it’s your first time so I haven’t had a chance to meet you yet Viva hey you are a little late but don’t worry I haven’t started the lesson I’m just talking about the opportunity to become a premium subscriber and discussing my awesome college here where I work I like to for our new students show you the campus this is our website our College website and you’ll see right here this is the college campus this is inside it’s a really brand new building very cool this is right next to our campus it’s our clock tower and park our park just got sixty five million dollars to build new things there so there’s gonna be a lot of new activities and things to do that are right next to our college campus which is awesome so excited okay up total Anson college and you’re you’re after year two so if you’re you’re in year three if it’s two you’re a sophomore if it’s year three you are a junior and your last year if it’s a four year college you are a senior same words for high school we say freshman sophomore junior and senior freshman sophomore junior senior so now you guys know the terms for that anyway we partner with four-year universities and community colleges and technical schools so there’s a lot of pathways to if you wanted to get a master’s degree or a PhD or or an undergrad degree like bachelors we have those programs where you can go directly from our school to them with no TOEFL no aisles they’re our partners and our friends so we send our students directly there with no trouble it’s a great program and it’s a great opportunity so please feel free to apply to our college or if you have questions send me an email I have a posh accent Nilofer that’s an interesting adjective I would never describe myself as posh but thank you that’s a very kind compliment I appreciate it okay enough about the college and me I hope to see you guys in person someday and meet you face-to-face I would love for you to visit Spokane but until then how about we study some English together so for premium subscribers you can go to this link in smart I’ll paste it in the chat there for it to be easy for you but we’ve been talking in this class about different aspects of English that are valuable for academic purposes so if you’re in University and you want to write papers in English or if it’s an english-speaking university this information will help you it’s very valuable we’ve talked about APA guidelines we’ve talked about writing strategy reading strategy outlines how to transition between body paragraphs we’ve talked about identifying and creating general statements and thesis statements all of these things are so important to academic writing I’ve had students from Mexico that our marine biologists that are publishing papers all over the world in English I’ve had students that are philosophy majors psychology majors doctors medical students and these students get to do amazing incredible things in their work and they need this information so I’m so happy and grateful to be able to teach you this information and hopefully make your lives more productive and more goal oriented towards towards your aspirations I want you guys to achieve your goals so Luciano says what does posh mean posh is kind of like it’s like refined or or dignified or like fancy in a way we we don’t use it very often actually it’s not a very common adjective but it’s good and most Americans know what it means it’s someone who might wear you know very formal clothes and and have an elegant style okay so sumaya you say Josh could you give me any advice about improving my speaking skills yes of course here’s some general advice for everybody before we start our lesson on essay skills if you want speaking skills there’s a couple things you should do listen to native speakers and if you have the opportunity make friends with native speakers build a friendship with someone in America you know reach out on our Facebook page to some of our students or our teachers and you know we’ll try to talk to you as much as possible when we’re not in our classes teaching our students here at the college but if you have other opportunities to meet Americans if you want to learn American English which I of course think is the best kind of English then then make friends and practice with them listen to them also when you hear an Americans speak when you hear me speak try to copy me try to copy my pronunciation copy the way I speak some students are hesitant to do that and I don’t know if it’s in class at least if they feel like they’re going to offend or or if it’s wrong to do it’s not it’s a good thing to do you should try to copy your teachers and speak as they do it will help you reduce your accent and and pronounce your English words correctly yeah mimic Rosa has a great word for that mimic mimic is a verb that means to imitate to try to sound exactly like someone else we do this when we pretend to have accents like the Australian accent they pronounce their Y sound very long they’ll say likely likely and so we try to do that when we’re here in America we’ll try to sound Australian and over pronounce our are wise and vowel sounds okay so that’s one way you can do it the best way of course is to go and live immerse yourself in an english-speaking country of all the students I’ve ever taught the students who learn learn fastest our students who move to America for a short time and they live in the culture they live with the language all around them all the time and for example our homestay program here at our college allows you to live with American families so you’re hearing English your whole day all your day here with your teachers and then at home with your American family so that’s the best way but if you can’t travel try to make as many American friends as you can Skype with them hang out with them become a premium subscriber so you and I can do that those are very good ways to practice the third suggestion I’ll give you is record yourself listen to yourself we don’t hear ourselves the same when we’re speaking like this but when I go back and watch this video if I watch this video I would notice if I make any mistakes I would notice if I say a word incorrectly or if I miss a word in my sentence so use your your smartphone use your webcam use your laptop whatever record yourself and do it once a week least and watch yourself just five minutes of you talking and then as time goes on after a few months go back and watch your first video and compare it to your more recent videos see what kind of improvement you had made and see what kind of mistakes you make often so that you can think about them identify them and correct them so that’s my advice for how to improve your speaking skills in English if you have more questions feel free to email me and I’m happy to answer them but I want to get started with the lesson I’m so happy to have you guys here in class and I’d like to discuss the topic of essay layout today so for three classes we discussed APA formatting and how to correctly craft our paper but I want to return to that first class and just go over the basic layout of an of an essay and we’re gonna start with a little tutorial here in Google Docs if you’re not familiar with Google Docs I highly suggest learning the basics of Google Docs there’s some great videos online I have a tutorial video I can share with our premium subscribers which will help also but it’s a very valuable free resource so you can write academic papers and I’ll show you what I mean if I go into Google Docs it’s much like Microsoft Word or pages you can create a document you can create a title so I’m going to title this one essay outline example okay and you have most the same tools here you can change the font the format so sumaya thank you I appreciate that comment that’s very nice I’m glad you think I’m a great teacher so for our returning students so Luciana Rosa Selma what is the correct font and size to use for academic papers I’m going to quiz you a little bit and see if remember first one to answer gets props from me in the comments there and I’m just looking at your questions Rosa says she’s trying to apply that with ko vivec and Zara trying to apply what Rosa trying to practice speaking is that what you’re talking about vivec says mimic is not a good word to describe copying it’s used in a negative way i mimicked my friend when he wasn’t around and others laughed at my mimicking you’d want to say mimicking but V BEC I’m sorry I have to correct you there that’s not quite correct mimic is not a bad word mimic is okay mimic is is a fine word that just means to copy the word that I think you are thinking of is mock to mock sometimes people do use mimic in a bad way it doesn’t always have a negative connotation though we could say that a parrot mimics human speech a parrot I think we all know these animals right this was from an earlier class a parrot is the bird that can really colorful bird that can mimic human speech so these these are animals that can produce sounds linguistically that are similar to the sounds that humans produce so mimics not bad mock would be to mock someone is to to pretend to be like them but in an insulting way in a negative way so if we’re mocking someone we’re not being nice if we’re mimicking someone it’s it’s okay copying is a fine word too but thank you for pointing that out any time we use language that you want more explanation of or that you agree or disagree with please write a comment because I want to discuss these things okay so we have our excellent answers here says New Roman times new roman’ size 12 you’re right Selma had it as well V vacu had it good job that’s excellent and Luciana so good job everybody and Luciana also says listen to American music yeah you’re right that’s a good good way to practice hearing pronunciation music isn’t always the best though because sometimes singing is different than the way we actually pronounce the words but it is one good way to do it watch movies watch Netflix watch American television all good resources they might use bad grammar in movies and television so be careful of that but you will get experienced to common language of our culture Selma I am in the future it’s Friday they’re awesome I’m a time traveler so cool I love that um so everybody said the correct answer Times New Roman size 12 avi Beck no no mean sentences come on I know you’re joking with Rosa but hates such a bad word my grandmother says hate is too strong of a word to use with something you don’t like it’s one of my favorite quotes from my grandmother so mock is to make fun of someone and this is great because I needed some text here to use to explain how to change the default settings in your Google Drive so Rosa Selma premium subscribers I’d like you to do this with me if you can we’re gonna change the settings for our Google Documents so that every time we open a new one it’s all ready to go for us it’s already prepared if we open a new document by default its Arial and size 11 but that’s not what we want we want to change it to Times New Roman size 12 so open a new document and type any word just a single word and then select it all select everything there and click on your font and change it to Times New Roman if you don’t see it click on more fonts and search but it should be there Times New Roman and change it to size 12 and if you want these directions you can just go to google and type type Google Doc default font or settings and this will come right up to set a preferred font so we open a file we type our text and we highlight the text and then you go to the tool bar and we go to the format option right here so tool bar format and we go down to paragraph Styles and we go update normal text to match okay update normal text to match so again format paragraph Styles options oh excuse me normal text update normal text to match then the next the next step here is we go back to format I’m gonna back off your just a little bit not too far so we can see all the options format paragraph Styles options and then save as my default styles okay oh I did want to change one more thing too so keep your text highlighted this option right here if you see this one right here it’s like the center option but it’s line spacing so go to that option and we want to click double double spaced your professors if you’re studying at university will probably ask you to double space your papers they might not they might have variants they might have you do different settings but most professors at in english-speaking countries like Times New Roman size 12 double-spaced so if we can set this we don’t have to change it every time so again we’re going to select our text format paragraph Styles normal text update normal text to match and then format paragraph Styles options and then in our options here I’m going to back out just a little bit we’re gonna say save as my default Styles okay and again those steps are free on Google to search for just type Google Docs document font or default settings or something like that and it’ll come right up for you so now I have APA style pre-saved to all of my Google Documents that I create and we can test it I can go in here and create a new document and we’ll see right there it’s saved it’s already Times New Roman size 12 C if I type its double-spaced see already saved for me it’s already there and you can of course change it back this is just a really nice way to make sure you’re always using the right formatting APA format so hopefully that is helpful abdul rahman AR abdul rahman the program is just Google Documents so if you have a gmail account we use gmail accounts at our college here here’s my gmail Joshua dot live at smart English comm and you get access for free to your drive which is a storage storage service where they allow you to store documents photos sound files videos basically anything you want to store you can store for free in Google Drive I store all my homework videos that I make our premium subscribers I store photos of the college Spokane College of English language some music sometimes I store in here it’s a really convenient place but you can also create essay documents you can create documents that somewhat you can share with someone and collaborate on or they can open it in Microsoft Word or pages if you’re running on a Mac computer so greetings from Mexico Danny hi how are you glad to have you here okay it looks like I’ve answered your question of dill Ramon so please change your settings if you can if you have questions about it Rosa Selma just send me an email or we’ll talk about it in our hangout after class today so we’re going to go over some more of our smart curricula here this curriculum for today is essay layout so imagine that you’ve already found your sources you’ve organized your ideas you’ve made your outline as we discussed in our previous class now our last step is to change our outline into sentences and paragraphs essentially to write our essay so we used a five paragraph structure in class which is the easiest way to teach the creation of an essay in English the first paragraph is your introduction paragraph it introduces the general idea and the basic topics for your supporting body paragraphs and then we choose three supporting body paragraphs because it’s important to get many sources of evidence to prove our thesis so we’ll use three body paragraphs to support our thesis and we end with a conclusion paragraph which is essentially a restatement of our thesis a summary of what we wrote and then we end with a big idea like a call to action or a argument on one side or the other of a topic do we apply this even when we write microsoft word – yes Rosa the same format I don’t know if there’s a way to save your default styles in Microsoft Word maybe but I encourage you to use Google Docs instead of Microsoft Word I think that it has just as many features and any features that it doesn’t have you’re not really gonna need in academic writing so it’s it’s just cleaner and faster and easier in my opinion I prefer Google Docs two pages or Microsoft Word I think it’s faster simpler and it’s easier to track your your history in the document I’ll show you something kind of cool here when you use Google Docs you can search for all your changes so if I started this last week and I made tons of changes you can go back and view what you changed you can view your edits and every single little change I made is stored here so I can go back and see when I typed when I deleted something and you can restore these earlier versions too so it saves them for you it’s um it’s a really valuable tool I think I know that I love it my other teachers love it my students love it so give it a shot test it out if you have questions let me know and I’m happy to help so luciana Wow I can’t pronounce the name of where you’re from is it rests ‘if receive is that right correct me if I’m wrong but I’m glad you’re here Jose I see you joined as well thank you for being here we’re talking about formatting for academic essays so those are the styles that we should use in our five paragraph essay or multi paragraph essay we do for APA format need to include a title page at the beginning and I’ll talk about the details of that in just a minute and also our reference page at the end which is also called bibliography or a works cited now bibliography is a little different but they’re all essentially the same they all have essentially the same purpose which is citing our sources telling our reader where we got our information this is so important in academic writing because we have to prove that where we got our information is credible to support our points for example if I tried to tell you that the earth is flat the earth is flat one you’re going to call me an idiot because it’s not flat it’s round right but you’re also gonna ask me well why do you think that how did you come to that conclusion and if I can’t prove to you facts and show you evidence of why I believe this to be true it’s it’s just me making something up right the the way that we had this revolution in science and history of moving from the idea of the earth being flat to round was supported by evidence supported by facts that that could be checked and that’s how academics work we come up with an idea and we prove it to be right or someone else proves us to be wrong and it’s through these academic arguments that in the world we achieve any progress so academic writing is something I’m very passionate about I believe that quality academic writing can make fundamental changes in our in our society in our world we’re a global community and we have to make positive changes and one way we can do that is by creating strong writing and sharing it with the world so and I’m not sure how to say your name is it ch is it Qi I I forget I think we talked about it last week but you said you you remember doing this when you wrote your thesis many hours without sleep yep yeah if you plan your essay out over a long time it’s easier but many students will write you know the week before or something or sometimes the night before which is a terrible idea but I’m not gonna say I haven’t done that myself so we’re gonna have our title page we’re gonna have our reference page and then we’re going to insert citations in our paragraphs but we’re just looking at the general format of the essay today to sort of wrap up our APA lesson the title page has three parts it has the header the title and personal information so your information or the author’s information chardee that’s right thank you Vivek Charlie okay let’s see here just making sure I’m watching everybody’s questions to make sure I don’t miss anything I didn’t see Google Docs as an option I was using Microsoft software does this kind of app help you save your documents online yes Danny Danny from Mexico right yes Google Docs is free if you have a gmail account you just sign up and you get it for free and it saves them for you so anytime you create a document you can always go back to your drive and it’s there waiting for you so let’s go ahead and create let’s create our title page so at the bottom of the title page is a proper blank our page break and I’ll show you how to make that in Google Docs you can insert page break or do control enter so let’s let’s go ahead and watch this quick video and it will show you an example of our formatting for our documents and this is a way to insert indents and tabs this is part of the smart curricula and premium subscribers you have access to this I will I’ll send you a link to our lesson that we’re on and yes to answer your question Luciana or maybe you are answering Danny’s question any words you type is automatically saved in Google Docs I’ll show you that again in just a minute but let’s watch this video about using indents and tabs and we’ll discuss after the video you I’ve written a letter that has several paragraphs and to make each paragraphs stand out just a little more I want to add a first line indent the easiest way to do this is to place your cursor also known as the insertion point at the beginning of a paragraph and then press the tab key you may have noticed that when I did this this little marker on the ruler moved forward 1/2 inch this is the first line indent marker there’s also the left indent marker and then all the way on the other side the right indent marker we can move them to create various types of indents they don’t affect the whole document though just the parts that are selected so let’s select all of these paragraphs now click hold and drag the first-line indent marker as the marker moves a blue guideline extends from the ruler the right indent is useful if you want to make the paragraph narrower and finally the left indent marker can be used to move all of the lines at the same time you can also adjust the left indent using the buttons on the toolbar these will increase or decrease the indent and half-inch increments but for this letter I want a more traditional look so I’m just going to do a first line indent of 1/4 of an inch and dents are a good way to keep things lined up in your document but for more complex documents such as resumes they’re not always enough I’d really like all of these dates to line up I could just use spaces but it’s going to be difficult or impossible to get them to line up exactly so I’ll need to use tabs if I place the insertion point right before the text I want to align and then press the tab key it’s going to jump forward in half-inch increments that works pretty well but I’d like to have a little more control over exactly how the text lines up I think a tab stop is exactly what we need here tap stops tell the text exactly where to line up so you’re not limited to half-inch increments just like with indents tab stops only apply to the selected text so select all of the text that you want to include in your tab stop next click the ruler where you’d like the tap stop to be you can choose to align your text to the left center or right of the tab stop in this example we’re going to align our text to the left now to align the dates we want to add just one tab before each date and they will jump to the new tab stop if there are more things that you’d like to align you can add more tab stops and to remove them just drag them off the ruler and they’ll disappear this looks a lot better now and I think having everything lined up gives it a neater more professional appearance okay so I think it’s valuable to to understand those features and just kind of refresh and remind ourselves how to do it if if we haven’t done that in a while it does it allows us to make our our documents look really clean and professional and when you submit an essay to your professors you want it to look clean and professional sometimes I have students change the font to crazy fonts with colors and stuff and while it may look interesting and colorful it’s distracting and it takes away from what really matters which is what they wrote down so be careful of that as you’re writing academically we want it to be Times New Roman size 12 double-spaced it’s more professional and more formal looking and important in the academic world so that is how to sort of format your your in that document your essays so I always have my students write their essays with half inch tabs and we’re going to have to do a little bit of formatting when it comes to our reference page we’ll get to that in a minute though back to our curricula here we have citations so we have n citations and here’s some examples I’m just going to copy these over and paste them into our document so that we can have some to sort of play with here and I can show you how to how to format our essay reference page so I’m going in here and I’m just taking these citations I’m just going to do two of them this is for our reference section so all of the sources that we used in our essay will go here and we have to use hanging indents so there’s another short video that I want to include in today’s lesson from our smart page and is how to use indents so we’re going to watch that really quick and then we’re actually going to do it together here in my Google Drive with the document so you can see another example of how it’s done you okay I’m not sure why hey the video did that but I just wanted to show uh show you guys how to do hanging indents so I’m just gonna do it here as an example for you you see that we highlight just the reference page here and we move our tab stop in that half inch and then we’re going to take this little top bar I’m gonna zoom in so you can see it see how there’s two little things here this is the indent this is the border line there we bring that back I’m gonna zoom out so you can see what it did there so again for our references we do a hanging indent which is just kind of a reverse a normal paragraph of course we indent the first line and we do not do spaces between them in APA formatting so it would look like this if these were paragraphs in our essay but this is not our essay this is our reference page so we do a hanging indent which looks exactly opposite of that so we highlight all the text in our reference page and we move the indent over to that half inch marker and then we move our line back to the original line so it will inevitably look like this so I’m just trying to get these to line up here and sorry I said half inch I mean inch so they will look like this and you see how I highlighted this paragraph but not this one it only changes what we highlight so we have to make sure to highlight all of our references and adjust the tabs accordingly so there we go this is a hanging indent and this is exactly the same in Microsoft Word or pages if you don’t see this little ruler here you just go to view and make sure that show ruler is checked otherwise you won’t have it in your document so make sure you have show ruler checked that way you can manipulate your index so it looks like Rosa you mentioned a computing class in English we do have English for with computer terminology and computer vocabulary available so um if you’re interested in that send me an email or send Zach an email we can give you more information about it and it looks like abdul-rahman is leaving so you can go watch the Brazil game $5.00 Mon thank you for coming glad this was your first class please come back again we’ll be here Tuesdays and Thursdays okay and let’s see yeah Rosa our premium subscribers she wants to be a journalist that’s awesome you should definitely travel and definitely keep writing because your writing is amazing your essays have been great so good work all right Luciana I’m not sure why you can’t hear anything maybe just check your settings or try headphones sometimes that solves the problem and let’s see here okay V Beck it sounds like he wants to be an author well you know what vivec if you are going to submit possibly a novel or some sort of book that you want to write nonfiction or fiction you will also probably use this same format to submit to publishers this is a very common format to submit anywhere professionally if you’re writing for a newspaper like Rosa wanting to be a journalist or if you want to try to publish a book same style you’re going to use this style probably so okay it looks like everyone understands this quite well so I’m gonna go back to our example here and we are going to open up an essay that was created for the same purpose now I’m gonna copy this document because the one thing that is not included in here which I will try to to amend is the the font this is not Times New Roman so let’s change it we’re gonna select everything go to Times New Roman size 12 and I also have to change the header this is called a document header you create this by going insert and then go down to header these are headers and footers it’s the space at the top of a page or the bottom of a page and with APA formatting we want to use the same font Times New Roman size 12 and basically this is a page number and the title of your essay so this is our title and the title is located the title is located at the top of the page here on its own centered it is the only thing that should be centered the title page in your essay everything else should be aligned to the left because that’s how we format in English that’s how we read from left to right but the title page can be centered Rosic looks like I missed something just go ahead and repeat your question for me if you had a question oh he Becky’s not coming to the class again but he’s gonna watch it later yeah oh of course no problem he can watch it later and he’ll get my comments then so this student is Bill Smith very American name and his class is smart 140 and his teacher is Chris Kelly so that is how we usually format our title we say the student name the class name the teacher’s name so really this could be me right and Rosa um use your name if you don’t mind just as an example here so we would use the student name the class name and then the teacher name and the date now this is the common way to write the date in English American English Canadian English and this one is okay but I tell my students sometimes if we use the numbers so there’s several ways to write the date some students will write the day for example today is November sorry about that sometimes students will write the date and they will use numbers so this is the 11th month November today is the tenth and the year is 2016 sorry there’s a there is a shortcut I put with the numbers on here so that’s why it keeps going to the other screen I apologize but this is in my opinion a terrible way to write the date because in many countries it goes not month day year but day month year so it’s very hard for someone internationally to tell if this is November 10th 2016 or October 11th 2016 so my advice is to always spell the month now you can do it this way or you can do it this way 27 June 2012 or 2016 or whatever I’ll use the date they have there this is my preferred way to write the date I just like it it’s cleaner I can abbreviate it 27 the three letters of the month and the year it’s really simple but either way is fine either way it is totally fine and honestly most of your teachers if they are teaching at an American University they will prefer you write the date this way so student name class name teacher name and date and your title goes up here so that is the format that’s how we create that I wanted to see if we have okay so half inch first line indent is APA formatting so we look here at our example essay and we scroll down so at the last line of our title page we’re gonna press ctrl enter and that is gonna cause a page break that means you cannot type anything down here on this page it will immediately start on the next page so here’s our indent and you notice it’s excuse me half an inch which is the same as one tab press of the tab key we went over that in an earlier video the title is repeated on the very first page and it’s of course also included in the header which repeats on every single page so when you insert this number you do do so by clicking insert and then page number and we put our page numbers at the top of the page okay this one skips the title page it’s not really a big deal either of these is fine because the title page is very obviously the first page so I accept both of those for my students essays that they submit so our title page control-enter the other way to do that instead of pressing ctrl enter is to say insert page break page break so that will bring you down to this Paige here half-inch indent and you can do that right from the start by just pressing tab or you can select your si in the end and then move all of the paragraphs at once if you wish and then this is our introduction paragraph you notice it’s all double-spaced but there is no extra space between the paragraphs many students will put a space like this and I tell them no please don’t it’s already double-spaced so the paragraphs can go next to each other the indent is what identifies the beginning of a new paragraph Luciana’s question is um let’s see here can we use the two final letters of the ordinal number like 27 th yes to answer your question about the date I believe you’re asking if you can include this 27th June 27th 2012 yes and if you do this sometimes you’ll see students not include the comma I still do it out of habit but again this is why I prefer because of all the options to just write 27 June sorry same shortcut 27 June 2016 so this is the way I prefer it but you can do it several different ways and it looks like vivec said he wrote an example Rosa uses the decimals instead of instead of the slashes we use backslash so sorry about that let’s have it Rosa uses decimals instead of backslash so where Americans would write this for today’s date you will also see this that’s also a common way to write the date in English and viewbag said 25 June 1993 remember to capitalize June though vivec is that your birthday June 27th good birthday it if so nice and warm here in Spokane at least so there’s lots of ways to write the date my advice would be to simply use this format month name number and year so let’s see that would be how I would prefer students write it or number of the day spelling of the month and then number of the year is also good okay and yeah in Brazil its day month year lots of countries yes so that would be the title page and then of course the the title is up here our page number the title is only repeated again on the first page in APA formatting for academic essays here you see there is some highlight here there’s a different color this is simply for your information it shows you an example of a citation but if we’re truly writing an essay it would look like this this is what your essay would really look like it was simply changed in color to help students identify it so keep that in mind and here’s another example of a an in-text citation so I’m gonna scroll down here past our essays here’s a note a further body paragraph in conclusion would normally follow and then now we have our references so the reference page also has a title at the very top and it’s simply called references your professor might ask you to call it something different like works cited or bibliography and they’ll give you a guide so you will know what you are supposed to do but if they don’t provide a guide if they just say please write an essay you’re pretty safe doing it this way okay looks like we have one two three and four references can you see those each time we have one of these hanging indents it denotes a new reference so here is reference number one reference number two reference number three and reference number four hopefully that’s clear there are no spaces between but the hanging indent here shows where each reference starts and is continued sometimes it’ll look a little strange because of the length of website addresses website URLs one way around that is to use Google two shortened URLs so Google’s short URLs you just go to URL shortener which is also just goog l and we can take a long URL like this this is a link to the article so let’s say this is the article we read we copy the URL we would paste it here in Google URL shortener prove we’re not robot and shorten the URL now this same URL right here takes us to that webpage and I’ll show you we can test it I’ll type that oops I copied the wrong things all right we click copy our short URL now I paste that it’s a much shorter URL and I can use that in my citation I at least allow my students to use it in their citations because I think it’s nice they’re able to um sorry I gotta find that document ah so they are able to do something like that and it just makes their reference even shorter and cleaner and nicer to to work with so you can do that as an option like this URL right here is very long very long this would be a perfect one to use Google’s URL shortener to shorten so then I just copy it and I can use it in place of this so hopefully that is helpful for you I would yes no spaces between this is already double-spaced so I’m gonna take off the bold bold language there and it is already double-spaced and actually these should not be italics either so you can tell if it’s double spaced by highlighting it and clicking here and seeing what is selected so by default it’s single spaced but if you change your settings you should see a double spaced here okay so no extra spaces between we would not do this if your your references look like this if you’re in my class I will send it back to you and say nope no extra spaces please fix that and you will have to fix these spaces so you notice that that changed I can put my hanging indent back by simply moving these over half an inch let’s do an inch just so you can see the big change there and again have one two three and four references so hopefully that explains for you how our reference pages should look this is a good looking reference page here it’s got the header reference title and then my four references any questions about that at all hopefully that is clear for everybody and gives you a bit of insight into how your essays should look as you do academic writing good job okay good job everybody on your comments I’m really happy to see everyone engaged and chatting about these subjects that we’re discussing APA format essay creation and Composition and also finding our credible sources so didn’t use double spaces between the same reference yeah that is correct we should not use double spaces in some situations for example if your professor tells you to single space your paper you’re going to want to and that will happen if you’re studying English at an American college or university that will happen so go with what your professor says but if they don’t give you enough guidance or instruction follow these rules that we’ve discussed in class and you should be fine your average professor should accept this as a good format to submit an English paper so again that is our lesson for today APA formatting is done finished so if you have any questions about APA formatting especially some Monroe’s are premium subscribers please let me know today in an email or during our hangout after class which will start in about five minutes and we can discuss we can talk about it anybody else feel free to email me and we can chat about it but starting next week we’re going to move on to a new topic so get any APA type questions to me soon because we’ll be moving forward into more academic English practice that is not just formatting and creation of of APA style essays I hope everybody has an amazing weekend our college is closed tomorrow it’s a holiday here in America so I won’t be teaching again until next Tuesday actually and I’ll be excited for our brand-new lesson that we’ll have so if it was your first time if your returning student if you’re a premium subscriber come back next Tuesday we will see you 2:30 p.m. Pacific Standard Time and I look forward to it thank you guys so much for the amazing comments your wonderful students it’s really exciting having you here so have a great day have a great weekend and I will see you guys next week