This really is additionally difficult to verify within excavation reports solely because then there may be evidence of a floor plan if the building no longer exists

This really is additionally difficult to verify within excavation reports solely because then there may be evidence of a floor plan if the building no longer exists

What it is more feasible to assume is the fact that existence of loom weights in certain areas of the homely house, for instance the courtyard, indicate why these areas had been dedicated to females (Allison, 1999: 71). In Roman culture ladies would have done the weaving in the forecourts of the house as this was the part that is‘well-lit of house’ (Allison: 1999: 70).

In comparing the homely homes through the two communities being examined its clear that there are some areas this one culture shows that one other does not. For instance, in Greek homes wells for water are regular (Goldberg, 1999: 153); it is not something that is mentioned within sources on Roman housing. Neither did Roman homes come with a available space just for the purpose of male entertaining. Perhaps the women that are atriumwasusedby weaving (Allison, 1999: 71).

Its perhaps additionally well worth noting that through the sources included inside this research there has been no reference to metropolitan villas having a floor that is second. But, there are examples where homes are situated above stores such as in Ostia (Storey, 2001) and they are raised from the ground. This really is additionally difficult to verify within excavation reports solely because then there may be evidence of a floor plan for the ground floor, but no evidence of the second floor would remain if the building no longer exists.

With studies like this one we encounter problems. To really investigate this subject, more research has to be done which links the artefacts that are uncovered and what this will tell us about the home that they had been discovered within. It is really not safe to assume that simply because an item was present in a room that that’s where it belonged term that is long an excavation is merely a ‘diachronic test of debris showing habits of good use and behavior over an extended period’ (Ault et al., 1999: 52), and also this snapshot associated with the home may not be entirely accurate.

Through the course of composing this essay it was seen that conclusions are difficult to draw as a result of the nature associated with the product being dealt with. For instance, the irregular design of Greek housing ensures that habits aren’t effortlessly identified between them and patterns in the rooms that most often appear but there is no rigid layout which means we can predict what we will find, for instance, not all houses had andronesand some houses had second floors whereas others did not as they are in Roman housing, there are of course similarities. Another reality you need to take into account is that a complete large amount of the uses among these spaces is speculative. There clearly was evidence that is little main sources through the time about the uses for spaces, so where historians have actually recommended an usage for the space they actually do therefore by using the artefacts that will be never accurate (Allison, 2004).

It is hard to straight compare the 2 types of housing since the Greeks and Romans go about their housing in different ways, using the Greeks dividing the homely house into genders, something does not take place in Roman architecture.

This is usually a very cross that is limited across the two communities and their homes ultimately causing the conclusions being limited to metropolitan homes and poorer homes may have been various again. This will be one thing to look into further. Therefore, ‘we stay woefully uninformed about most habits of social and relationships that are economic and between households’ (Ault et al., 1999: 44).

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Was the ‘Dark Age’ of Greece actually dark? Evaluate the forms of proof we have for this amount of Greek Archaeology

The aim of this essay is to explore or perhaps a ‘Dark Age’ of Greece was really a dark, bleak amount of time in the nation’s history through considering the archaeological proof discovered for conditions during this period. The black Age of Greece, also known as the Homeric Age, the Geometric Period or the Greek Dark Ages, is dated c.1000-750 B.C. This was the period that followed the collapse regarding the Mycenaean palatial civilisation plus the state-level system of government that supported it (Alcock, 2012: 134). The black Age consequently covers the period dating through the end regarding the Mycenaean palatial civilisation around 1100-1000 B.C. to the beginnings associated with the establishment regarding the Greek town states in the century B.C. that is ninth

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Archaeological finds suggest that the Bronze Age civilisation experienced a collapse in the Eastern Mediterranean globe the black Age as soon as the populous urban centers and palaces founded by the Mycenaean’s had been abandoned or damaged (Lemos, 2002: 193). After a few cities that are major Gaza to Troy collapsed less settlements stayed and those which did revealed indications of famine and a populace decrease (Alcock, 2012: 134). Additionally, Greek tradition was at decrease during the black Age since the Linear B writing associated with the Greek language used by Mycenaean bureaucrats faded away (Colavito, 2014: 50). Additionally, the design found on Greek pottery produced after c.1100 B.C. is less decorative than that on Mycenaean pottery and it is alternatively limited to easy, geometric designs (Kidner et al., 2009: 69). Also this, it was thought that during the black Age all interaction ceased between the mainland of Greece and powers that are foreign ultimately causing a lack of social development and progress (Colavito, 2014: 50). But, the excavation of Lefkandi which started in the early 1980s challenged this belief since the web site suggested that significant social and trade links stayed in place involving the Greek isles plus the East from around 900 B.C. onwards (Whitley, 2001: 78). Hence, archaeological proof indicates that not absolutely all parts of Greece had been separated or went into decrease during the black Age.

The following paragraphs will present arguments for the Dark Ages being truly ‘dark’ based on archaeological evidence, after which it will be suggested that archaeological evidence does exist, particularly from Lefkandi, which suggests otherwise to explore these points in detail. After this, conclusions are going to be presented with this subject.

exactly why the Mycenaean palatial civilisation collapsed remains under dispute. One concept is the fact that Dorian individuals invaded, destroying the Mycenaean palaces and then the infrastructure the Mycenaeans had created (Lemos, 2002: 191). The problem with this specific theory is Mycenaean material that is archaeological happens to be discovered  times up to a duration several years following the intrusion supposedly took place. Additionally, areas where in fact the Dorians purportedly settled, such as Laconia, stayed depopulated until later on in the century that is tenth (Lemos, 2002: 192).

but, Desborough contends that the available archaeological proof is in fact consistent with two major invasions place that is taking. He suggests that the invasion that is first responsible for the disaster that took place at the end associated with the belated Helladic IIIB, approximately 1200 B.C., after which the invaders withdrew through the internet sites they had damaged as they stayed a hazard for most of Central Greece plus the Peloponnese throughout the belated Helladic IIIC (Lemos, 2002: 192). After this intrusion, Desborough contends that the wave that is second of, almost certainly through the North-West of Greece arrived and it is this team that then account fully for the modifications that took place later on in the duration (Lemos, 2002: 192). Desborough additionally suggests that the Dorians had been just associated with the wave that is first of. He contends that the wave that is second of had been a different group of newcomers due to the various archaeological features that emerge; for instance the use of solitary burials plus the introduction of the latest gown ornaments (Lemos, 2002: 192).

But Desborough’s concept is disputed by Snodgrass whom suggests that the changes that heralded the Dark Age were not attributable to either invaders or interlopers that are new. Instead, he suggests that it was due to a revival associated with the center Helladic Substream, in other words. an overthrow regarding the Mycenaean palatial civilisation was initiated by the lower classes (Lemos, 2002: 192). This overthrow is mirrored by the reduced socio-economic archaeological features of this era such as solitary burials plus the utilization of handmade pots (Lemos, 2002: 192-193). But, neither among these theories are provable. The actual only real certainty is that an emergency took place at the end associated with the Mycenaean period ultimately causing a decrease in populace and social, financial and upheaval that is political.

The black Age of Greece started around 1100 B.C. whenever numerous settlements had been abandoned; a conference that indicates that the population that is severe started around this date (Whiley, 2001: 79). This occasion happens to be attributed to a mixture of social and crisis that is economicThomas and Conant, 1999: 85-86).

It was stated that:

‘Some associated with the Aegean areas had been abandoned, while others had been populated after which destroyed or abandoned again. Individuals went as far as Cyprus and Cilicia trying to find better and safer places to live. This flexibility is well-documented in the record that is archaeological has an important impact in the crystallization of conditions in the Aegean plus the eastern Mediterranean at the end associated with the belated Bronze Age’ (Lemos, 2002: 193).

A pattern that continues through the black chronilogical age of Greece is the look of post-Mycenaean refugee settlements from c.1250 B.C. onwards (Whitley, 2001: 77-78). Generally speaking, these sparse, remote settlements had been positioned over 500m above ocean degree, such as the one at Karphi. These settlements maintained the traditions that are old populace amounts would not alter during the black Age duration, nor did any development or development take place (Whitley, 2001: 78). Black Age settlement career habits are characterised by decrease in populace or ruin that is partial seen at Mycenae or by continuity with brand new elements, such as increased usage of cattle, as seen at Nichoria (Thomas and Conant, 1999: 85).

The black Age of Greece possessed a significant impact on the archaeological record since the framework associated with the countryside prior to the black Age was indeed closely tied to organisation that is palatial. Consequently, the total outcome of the black Age in archaeological terms had been a decrease in rural existence and a scarcity of settlements (Alcock, 2012: 134). Contemporary academics explain this decrease by arguing it was caused by populace decrease, governmental chaos and a subsequent return to pastoral task, which makes less permanent traces on the countryside (Alcock, 2012: 134).

its generally speaking accepted that black Age communities had been bad and remote and Early Iron Age settlements in Greece plus the area that is surrounding become little and disconnected from wider civilisation (Whitley, 2001: 86). An example of a typical black Age archaeological settlement is Nichoria in the south-west of Peloponnese (modern and ancient Messenia).

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The Bronze that is late Age at Nichoria was characterised by rectilinear structures arranged in rows of roads. But, the settlement’s black Age predecessor was discovered to include scattered house plots put at odd perspectives one to the other (Whitley, 2001: 84). One example of the structure that is typical by archaeologists and dating to the black Age amount of settlement at Nichoria is device IV.1, which dates through the tenth century B.C. This building seems to have been rectangular in shape and its own walls had been built from mud brick added to stone fundamentals. The building was crowned by a thatched roof that was supported by a timber framework (Whitley, 2001: 84-85).

The design and building style of mud stone on rock fundamentals, thatched roof and wood framework as well as the pattern that is scattered of settlements discovered to occur in tenth century B.C. Nichoria (Whitley, 2001: 84-85) are typical for the kind of structures present in black Age Greece. As time passes, the rectangular structures that dominated century that is tenth developed and gave option to semi-circular forms that were larger than what had gone before them (Whitley, 2001: 85; McDonald et al., 1983: 317). Additionally, like many black Age settlements, Nichoria was positioned close to the ocean, so although unfortified, it was based in a position that is strong protected it from outside assault (McDonald et al., 1983: 317).

It is hard to compare the settlement habits of Nichoria to those current at Lefkandi while the associated settlement of Xeropolis. But, Popham et al. (1980, p.7) observe that some of the black Age settlement of this area was interestingly regular, more just like the Bronze Age settlement at Nichoria compared to the Dark that is sparse Age mentioned by Whitley (2001, p.84). A similar pattern that is regular of exists during the Xeropolis web site (Popham et al., 1980: 7). As a result, it appears that, generally speaking, settlement habits in black Age Greece had been sparse and spread, perhaps in reaction to social, financial and upheaval that is political but that this pattern was by no way universal as illustrated by the examples of settlement habits at Lefkandi and Xeropolis.

The material deposits at Nichoria suggest that the community was materially poor in terms of the kinds of materials and evidence of diet and sustenance found in Dark Age settlements in Greece.

Some trinkets and some iron, all of which was produced in the region in which it was found (Whitley, 2001: 85) for example, some externally local wheel-made pottery has been found, together with a number of bone ornaments. Additionally, no brought in material was found at Nichoria, showing it was a settlement that is isolatedWhitley, 2001: 85). But evidence that is archaeological suggest that black Age Nichoria was ‘rich’ in one respect as it possessed a big method of getting cattle and, consequently, meat. Analysis of animal bones found at Nichoria suggests that more cattle had been being grazed at Nichoria during the black Age than was at the Bronze Age. This proof ‘indicates that there clearly was a switch far from reliance on cereal farming and pulses and towards herding of cattle’ during the black Age duration (Whitley, 2001: 85). The archaeological evidence shows that the rearing of cattle became much more important in this era and had a greater impact on the overall diet of the residents within settlements than it did during other periods of Nichoria’s history (Whitley, 2001: 85) although cereal production was not abandoned at Nichoria during the Dark Age. The reason why this might end up being the case is that herding had been a a lot more practical strategy that is economic labour was at short supply due to populace decrease but land stayed abundant (Whitley, 2001: 85-86). Another example of big volumes of meat usage at a black Age web site happens to be found at Kavousi Kastro and Kavousi Vronda in the uplands of Crete. But, in this certain area sheep/goat was more often grazed than cattle. For example, archaeological findings suggest that sheep accounted for 70 percent of bones identified at both internet sites (838 from Vronda and 2164 from Kastro) (Whitley, 2001: 86). By means of comparison, cattle and pig just accounted for 5 to 8 percent of all bones identified at both internet sites (Whitley, 2001: 86). Somewhat, the Kavousi Kastro and Kavousi Vronda area happens to be greatly grazed by sheep and goats throughout history and also this pattern continues into the day that is presentWhitley, 2001: 86). The examples of archaeological findings at Nichoria, Kavousi Kastro and Kavousi Vronda consequently suggest that subsistence strategies had been in place across Greece that permitted the population to endure during a downturn that is economic.

Archaeological proof bought at Lefkandi, located on the south shores associated with the area of Euboea straight challenges the basic idea that every area of Greece had been bad and separated during the black Age. Lefkandi, like Nichoria, consisted of a collection that is loose of spread throughout the neighbouring hills of Xeropolis and Toumba (Whitley, 2001: 86). Black Age task in the certain area dates back to 1100 B.C. and concludes around 750 B.C., the date as soon as the Archaic Period begins (Whitley, 2001: 78-79). According to archaeological discovers within the areas, there were six associated cemeteries available at Xeropolis alongside the remains of the big building that is proto-geometricDrissen, 1994: 252; Popham et al., 1993: 1; Whitley, 2001: 86-88). The chronology of Lefkandi are specifically identified through the pottery styles found on the web site. These are priced between those discovered that date through the phase that is sub-Mycenaean the belated Geometric period (Popham et al., 1980: 7, 11-12). Somewhat, at Xeropolis, proof happens to be discovered to suggest that the ‘lost wax’ procedure for casting bronze had been being used by 900 B.C. (Whitley, 2001: 86). Additionally, the cemeteries found at the settlement both in Lefkandi and, particularly, Toumba unveiled a series of rich goods that are grave. The six cemeteries found on the web site are situated near the hill that is low to the north of Xeropolis (Popham et al., 1980: 101). Examples include pottery imported from nearby Attica plus an abundance of gold ornaments, bronze objects and faience, the origins of that have been traced to Phoenicia and Egypt (Popham et al., 1980: 109). But, the experience based in the cemeteries spans a faster duration than compared to the site that is total, corresponding using the sub-Mycenaean to the sub-Protogeometric durations (c.1100-825 B.C) (Driessen, 1994: 252). This pattern of use is constant across all six cemeteries located on the web site; previous task was discovered toward the north and east of each web site and soon after task in the west and south of each cemetery (Popham et al., 1980: 105). This suggests that the cemeteries had been being used for most associated with the duration and that the inhabitants of Lefkandi stayed comfortably well off with usage of exotic goods for most associated with the Dark that is so-called Age.

additionally, in 1981, archaeologists discovered a large, semi-circular building on the Toumba mountain that was built in an enhanced way considered to be impossible in the context of tenth century B.C. Greece (Whitley, 2001: 86). It is a big Protogeometric structure added to the Toumba hillock so that it occupies the point that is highest associated with the settlement and overlooks the nearby cemeteries (Popham et al., 1993: 1). The building was 40 m in total and constructed from dressed rock mud and wall stone. It had a wall that is outer of to support the roof (Whitley, 2001: 86). But, academics are unsure as to what the building was it is uncertain whether the burials were in place before the mysterious building was built (Whitley, 2001: 86) at it was found to be unfinished and rich burials have been discovered underneath the floor but. But although the purpose of the building is uncertain the methods utilized to construct it, alongside the grave that is rich found at Lefkandi and Toumba ,as well as evidence of the missing wax procedure taking place at Xeropolis during the black Age suggests that the period was more successful in this area than generally speaking accepted.

it was recommended that Lefkandi is atypical of black Age internet sites, in the place of proof that the black Age was not entirely a time that is dark Greece. First, Lefkandi, unlike many Dark Age sites, isn’t settlement that is remoteWhitley, 2001: 77-78). It is also unlike other Cretan internet sites through the period that is same cartographic analysis associated with the area (Desborough, 1975: 675-676; 199). An isolated settlement, it is only elevated 17m above sea level, far lower than most Dark Age sites, such as another Cretan Dark Age site, Karphi which is 500m above sea level (Whitley, 2001: 78) while the Euboean Gulf makes Lefkandi. Additionally, Lefkandi had two harbours that are natural showing it was definately not remote and inaccessible.  Xeropolis is likewise atypical for the Greek Dark Age because of its unfortified seaside location as well as its dating to the era that is late helladic. As a result, it can be argued that Lefkandi plus the area that is surrounding be an atypical instance for the black Age duration, perhaps suggesting that this site is an exclusion as opposed to the guideline for black Age Greece.

The evidence that is archaeological black Age Greece is ambiguous in regards to or perhaps a black Age was really ‘dark’ or not. In the event that selection of proof found at Nichoria is considered, its obvious that this was a dark time for that settlement. Housing was sparsely set out; materials just came from the area that is local there have been greater levels of meat usage than there had been in the Bronze Age. But, the archaeological evidence present at Lefkandi and its own satellite settlements at Xeropolis and Toumba paints a picture that is different. Right Here its obvious that the citizens that are local access to expensive and exotic materials as evidenced by analysis of grave goods found at burials during the six cemeteries in the area dating back to to the black Age duration. Likewise, a large building that is mysterious built on the Toumba mountain indicates that the local populace had access to architectural abilities and materials thought impossible in black Age Greece. Thus, the example of Lefkandi appears to suggest that black Age Greece ended up being much less bleak and cut removed from the wider globe than formerly thought. Having said that, it could be recommended that Lefkandi is an example that is atypical. The settlement is located on one associated with the Greek islands and also this area may severely have been less affected than mainland Greece. Additionally, historic interpretation associated with the end regarding the Mycenaean palatial civilisation by experts such as Desborough and Snodgrass suggests that historic and evidence that is archaeological this era is obscure and open to interpretation. Hence, although the evidence that is archaeological at Lefkandi is interesting and compelling, its ambiguous whether it is typical or atypical for the black Age duration. As a result, it can still be argued that the black Age was certainly a period that is dark of history.

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The secret of box 9

Box 9 encompassed a total skull, articulated pelvis and right femur, all from the solitary, unknown person. Intercourse, age, ethnicity, height and pathology was determined using both metric and morphological forensic methods that are anthropological. Metric analysis is beneficial because it’s more straightforward to discover and replicate, utilizes standard landmarks, and leads to less conclusions that are indeterminateGiles, 1970). But, drawbacks include the significance of unfragmented bones and formulae that are population-specific. Consequently, if remains are burned or fragmented, a method that is qualitative required, but, these are subjective and not enough persistence (Giles, 1970). Alongside this, facial reconstruction and DNA profiling provided further proof to greatly help identify this person.

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Pathology is very important to consider before determining intercourse, ethnicity and age to prevent bias. This person has its own typical characteristics of acromegaly- a disorder that is rare by over-production of growth hormone through the pituitary gland, these include an enlarged skull, protruding mandible, mispositioned teeth and excessive bone tissue outgrowth around sutures (Chapman, 2017). This individual’s pelvis and femur are within normal ranges, suggesting the condition was acquired in adulthood which only occurs in acromegaly patients (NIDDK, 2012) although these features could also indicate gigantism. Acromegaly development can be linked to diabetes, high blood pressure, osteoarthritis and muscle that is severe, which, if kept untreated, could lead to premature death- it would likely have also triggered this specific to really have a stooped position and regular cardiovascular problems (Chapman, 2017). Since the femur and pelvis haven’t any indications of infection or harm, it is not likely this person had osteoarthritis, but, lack of organs and muscle tissue means other conditions may not be eliminated as cause of death.

Ferembach’s (1980) qualitative technique for skull intercourse determination suggested many features had been hyper-male (see figure 1), but, a rough but moderate depth zygomatic procedure and a notably flexed posterior edge associated with the mandibular ramus showed neither male or female characteristics. Regardless of this, general, one could predict that this person had been male.

4

3

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1

2

6

Figure 1 shows features of the cranium and mandible that suggested hyper-male traits Ferembach’s that is using) technique. 1: prominent glabella, 2: straight mastoid procedure, 3: blunted supraorbital ridges, 4: inclined forehead, 5: quadrectangular orbitals and 6: robust, broad mandible.

instead, Giles and Elliot’s (1963) discrimination function is a faster technique with comparable precision of 86.6%. Using formula 1, outlined in Appendix D, a value of 2994.9 is acquired, additionally suggesting this person had been male, increasing dependability of conclusions. Krogman (1962) found that sexing the skull alone is 90% accurate, but, sexing the skull and pelvis together is 98% accurate. Thus, to increase precision of last conclusions, the pelvis and need that is femur be analysed too.

The pelvis is the indicator that is best of intercourse because of its adaptation for childbirth in females. Phenice’s (1969) morphological technique uses 3 pubis characteristics to determine intercourse- certainly one of that will be the ventral arc, said to be 96% accurate in determining intercourse (Sutherland and Suchey, 1991). Unfortunately, this technique produced blended outcomes for this pelvis, consequently, instead, Albanese’s (2003) metric analysis, outlined in Appendix B, uses your whole pelvis and femur to increase precision and minimize subjectivity of intercourse dedication. Using model 1, which has 98% precision, a value of 0.26 is acquired, suggesting this person had been feminine. Yet, model 2 and 3, which have 97% and 96.3% precision correspondingly, get 0.62 and 0.94, demonstrably indicating male. Although model 2 and 3 have actually reduced precision, their matching result increases validity and confidence, allowing one to conclude this person had been male.

Bass (1978) discovered that a head that is femur >47.5mm indicates male while < em>

However, cranial suture closing is considered unreliable and inaccurate because it frequently under‐ages older grownups and over‐ages sub-adults (Molleson and Cox 1993). Moreover, this individual’s acromegaly caused excessive outgrowth of bone tissue around the sutures, possibly impacting their closing and, hence, impacting age dedication. A more reliable method of ageing the skull involves looking at dentition as a result.

Teeth are the minimum part that is destructible of body, making them excellent for age estimation. No dentition that is deciduous evidence of enamel 8 alveolar procedures indicate this person is at minimum 18 years old (Carr, 1962). Dental use analysis provides more age that is accurate compared to those previously mentioned because it examines enamel which may not be remodelled. a commonly utilized method involves analysing of mandibular molar wear (Miles 1963), however, as shown in figure 5 and 6, excessive ante- and postmortem loss of tooth means just two mandibular molars are present, preventing any age estimation that is valid.

 

Figure 5, photographs showing mandibular (A) and maxillary (B) dentition. 1) identifies the sites of postmortem loss of tooth, 2) shows tooth that is antemortem, 3) indicates alveolar processes of molar 3 and 4) indicates areas of decay.

Figure 6, using the University of Sheffield chart that is dental programs which teeth can be found, which have been removed and any fractures seen.

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